Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free Essays on The Effects of Attachment Styles on Relationship Functioning

THE EFFECTS OF ATTACHMENT STYLES ON RELATIONSHIP FUNCTIONING Jeffry A. Simpson, in the article â€Å"Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships† (1990) said, â€Å"Study of individual differences in attachment styles is likely to contribute significantly to our understanding of why close relationships vary in both their quality and interpersonal nature.† Recent research in the past few decades has proposed that the attachment style a person has which is developed by the childhood relationships with parents and important attachment figures is an important determinant in the experience of romantic love in later years. There has been increasing scientific support that attachment plays an important role in adult attachment and romantic relationships. In this respect, this paper will focus on the effects of attachment styles of adults in relationship functioning and satisfaction. In this respect the research question I will be focusing on will be â€Å"How do the attachment styles in adults affect relationship functioni ng and satisfaction?† I first see the need to form a conceptual background on the issue of attachment. The emotional bond between infants and their mothers can be seen in both humans as well as in many other animals. When an infant needs his mother and she is unavailable, such as in the case of separation, the infant is extremely distracted, he protests and searches for the mother. If such searching fails, the infant becomes depressed, and can even enter a state of disregard for and avoidance of the mother if she returns. Attachment is first introduced by Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1979, 1980) to explain how infants become emotionally attached to their primary caregivers and how stressful they become when separated. After Bowlby's theory, researchers began to investigate individual differences in attachment styles. Ainsworth and her colleagues (e.g., 1978, 1982) have identified three major attachment patterns based on ... Free Essays on The Effects of Attachment Styles on Relationship Functioning Free Essays on The Effects of Attachment Styles on Relationship Functioning THE EFFECTS OF ATTACHMENT STYLES ON RELATIONSHIP FUNCTIONING Jeffry A. Simpson, in the article â€Å"Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships† (1990) said, â€Å"Study of individual differences in attachment styles is likely to contribute significantly to our understanding of why close relationships vary in both their quality and interpersonal nature.† Recent research in the past few decades has proposed that the attachment style a person has which is developed by the childhood relationships with parents and important attachment figures is an important determinant in the experience of romantic love in later years. There has been increasing scientific support that attachment plays an important role in adult attachment and romantic relationships. In this respect, this paper will focus on the effects of attachment styles of adults in relationship functioning and satisfaction. In this respect the research question I will be focusing on will be â€Å"How do the attachment styles in adults affect relationship functioni ng and satisfaction?† I first see the need to form a conceptual background on the issue of attachment. The emotional bond between infants and their mothers can be seen in both humans as well as in many other animals. When an infant needs his mother and she is unavailable, such as in the case of separation, the infant is extremely distracted, he protests and searches for the mother. If such searching fails, the infant becomes depressed, and can even enter a state of disregard for and avoidance of the mother if she returns. Attachment is first introduced by Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1979, 1980) to explain how infants become emotionally attached to their primary caregivers and how stressful they become when separated. After Bowlby's theory, researchers began to investigate individual differences in attachment styles. Ainsworth and her colleagues (e.g., 1978, 1982) have identified three major attachment patterns based on ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Psychological and Physiological Effects of Stress-induced Stimuli Essay

Psychological and Physiological Effects of Stress-induced Stimuli - Essay Example Stress and human health often go hand-in-hand as much clinical research supports that each individual's response to stress has immediate, and sometimes long-term, effects on mental and biological health. The stress reponse is the reaction to stressors, or the events and circumstances that trigger sensations of pressure, frustration or anxiety. There are distinct biological and psychological changes that occur in an individual when exposed to stressful situations and, depending on the nature of the stressful event, the body's stress response can become more intense. Each individual maintains a variety of potential stressful stimuli, including life changes, work-related pressure or even self-induced stress brought on by psychological irrationality in which the individual maintains a self-defeating attitude towards their self value. There are any number of situations in which a person might feel overwhelmed by life situations, however, the response to the stress (whether catastrophic or perceived) varies in intensity based on each individual's ability to cope with the stressors. It is often the cognitive approach to coping with stress that makes the distinct difference between a healthy or a rather unhealthy stress response. Almost immediately after being exposed to a stressful si... Almost immediately after being exposed to a stressful situation, the brain's hypothalamus stimulates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal glands to release stress hormones such as adrenaline and norepinephrine into the blood - leading to increases in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and perspiration (Morris & Maisto, 2005). From a physiological standpoint, the stress Stress Response 4 response can be related to the physical, chemical effects on the body and the severity of long-term health effects vary by individual. A well-adjusted person, who purposefully recognises these physical changes when confronting stress, might begin a regimen of stress-relieving practices, such as meditation or breathing exercises, to bring the physiological effects down to a more controlled level. A person who is easily overwhelmed by stress may act inappropriately to these hormonal changes or become, in the long-term, a maladaptive person based on an inability to mentally cope with the stress. This indicates the relationship between the physical stress response and the psychological effects of long-term exposure to stress stimuli. Physiological Effects of Stress When the body recognises stress-related environments, the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system affords the body an opportunity to perform vigorous muscle activity, suggesting that the biology of this stimulation is to prepare the body for increased activity; sometimes viewing stress as a perceived threat. The sympathetic nervous system increases arterial pressure and increases blood flow to active muscles, thus increasing glycolysis and increasing muscle strength (Loomis, 2005). Glycolysis, by simple definition, is a metabolic process that

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Samulnori (Korean percussions) practice experience Lab Report

Samulnori (Korean percussions) practice experience - Lab Report Example The subsequent paragraphs give a detailed account of how the genre originated, more about the four mentioned instruments including their respective symbols and the material they (instruments) were made off, the pioneers of this genre and finally, the repertoire that existed for Samulnori. Samulnori is not only a development but also a revival of a music tradition that went by the name Pungmul (also called the Framer’s music). Samulnori came in to being when the two Kims (Kim Doksu and Kim YogBe) first performed at a concert, a shrunk form of Pungmul, which was initially characterized by a large number of actors, at times, an entire village would be urged to take up various roles for the success of the same. The name that the genre bears was given after a short while just after the concert by U-Song (Hesselink, 41). The name was used to connote both the reduced number of performers and instruments used in the playing of Pungmul. The number of instruments (as mentioned earlier) was reduced to four, while that of performers on some occasions was also four but during some performances, the number went up by one person. Despite the changes seen, Samulnori performers retained the dress code which was being used by the Pungmul performers. As mentioned earlier, the performance of Samulnori was characterized by the use of four instruments. However, each one of them had both its own distinctive symbol and the role it played (each instrument had something it represented and also, something was compared to). For instance, kkwenggwari, which was a small hand-held gong often made of either silver or gold trace, was played by the person leading a given group (all groups were led by a kkwenggwari player). The leader played the instrument by the use of the bamboo mallet. This instrument represented a star but in terms of comparison, it was compared

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

European Recovery Program Essay Example for Free

European Recovery Program Essay His proposal would become known as the European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan. In his speech Marshall extended an offer to the Soviets. Certainly all of Europe was included in the proposal. Stalin was interested in the plan. Lenin had spoken of trade with the communist enemy when that enemy was in collapse. Stalin thought that if these were the correct circumstances then the Soviets could use the Marshall Plan as they wished. Such was not the case. American opposition to the Plan included such conservatives as Taft on the Right and Wallace on the Left. This opposition was much weakened by the seizing of the democratic government of Czechoslovakia in February 1948 (Kunz par. 20). Before that, in September, 1947, Andrei Zhdanov of the Politburo spoke before the Cominform for Eastern Europe to assert that the imperialists were trying to support fascist regimes (Zhdanov par. 2). He wanted the imperialist intrigues to be contained. George Kennan also wanted containment- of the communists and, if need be, of the Soviets. Kennan and William Clayton, both of the US State Department, had contributed greatly to the origination of the Marshall Plan. Kennan thought the world was becoming polarized into giant camps of freedom vs. everyone else. The Soviet Union as the centerpiece of concern would come later. Bernard Baruch, an American advisor, had introduced the term Cold War in April, 1947 (Cold War par. 1). Meanwhile, the communists of France and Italy were of immediate threat in Western Europe. These two nations were part of the fifteen nations that the Marshall Plan would aid. The others were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, West Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey (Marshall Plan par. 21). President Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3, 1948. The major items for the Europeans in 1948 were to be coal, steel, grains, and machinery (Judd par. 9). In the first year, food constituted half of all of the Marshall aid. Over the long haul, sixty percent was spend on food, fertilizer, and industrial goods. One sixth of the total was for fuel. Another one sixth was spent on machinery and vehicles. In sum, thirteen billion dollars of aid passed from the USA to Western Europe from 1948 to 1951 (DeLong and Eichengreen par. 3). The food, feed, and fertilizer consumed a little over three billion dollars of the total. Shortly after the Marshall Plan went into effect, Italys anti-communist and pro-Marshall Plan party won a majority. And then in France, after the communists won a plurality in 1945, they were on their way out in 1951 due to French economic prosperity. This prosperity in France and elsewhere was not of a minor magnitude. After 1948 Western Europe got its greatest economic growth ever recorded. The German part of the recovery became known as the wirtschaftwunder, or economic miracle (Kunz par. 3). Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the Soviets were determined to see central planning become a reality. To that end, a forced industrialization was started which was to remove Eastern Europe from any influence by the Marshall Plan. Eastern European nations became satellites of the Soviets, as members of the Warsaw Pact, and got little civilian development in exchange for military support and control. The end products of manufacture and the harvests were directed to the Soviets. No financial or economic stability was developed by these countries. The Marshall Plan made the division of Europe definitive. The Plan seriously damaged the Western European communists’ efforts. Furthermore, the Marshall Plan has been termed inconceivable without the Cold War (Cronin 281). Soon enough, not only was the Marshall Plan in place to aid in the restoration of Western Europe, but it became a vital component in the Cold War. In the Cold War in Western Europe, Germany was a key country. It was to be split in two with the former Allies of WWII in Western Germany and the Soviets in Eastern Germany. But an odd development came about with Berlin, also spilt into east and west components, existing deep within Soviet controlled East Germany. This did not sit well with the Soviets and so they began a blockade of highways and roads into West Berlin in June, 1948.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Sweet Diamond Dust :: essays research papers

Chapter IV focuses on the presence of the Americans in Puerto Rico during the early part of the twentieth century and their subsequent development of the sugarcane industry there. During this time, the United States military occupied Puerto Rico. Due to this occupation, the native islanders were affected in numerous ways and were looked down upon by the Americans. The Americans viewed the natives as incompetent and unable to be trusted. Many new American banks were popping up in Guamani that were reluctant to finance island run mills, but were giving money to the American run mills: "A number of powerful banks from the north had recently opened branches in Guamani†¦These banks, however, found no difficulty in financing the new sugar corporations that had recently arrived in town, but mistrusted island initiative" (26). The opening and inauguration of the Snow White Mills, "†¦the ultramodern refining complex the newcomers (Americans) had been building from months on the valley," (28) was of major significance in this chapter. Don Julio was strong-willed and vowed that he would not sell any of his land and "share the same fate" as the other local sugar mills. It was rumored that the Americans had declared a cessation of hostilities in the sugar mills war, and were now willing to aid the criollo hacienda workers. This was his opportunity to mingle and discuss his plans with the owners of Snow White Mills. When Don Julio arrived at the fair grounds, he made his way over to Mr. Durham and Mr. Irving, the president of the mills and the president of the sponsoring bank National City Bank, respectively. These two Americans saw the US victory as a major step towards modernizing for the US and for Puerto Rico: "’Twenty years ago it brought you freedom and order; this times it’s bringing you our nation’s progress. Thanks to that army out there your island is being inaugurated today in to the modern age," (32) said Mr. Durham speaking of the army that was present at the festivities. Don Julio was disturbed and offended by this comment. Mr. Irving said that the progress of the new century belongs to Americans and the progress of the past belongs to the Spanish. Yet again, showing how the Americans look down upon the native peoples. He then proposed his deal to the two Americans; he would sell them some of his cane fields, if they would lend him the money to ‘modernize’ his own mill.

Monday, January 13, 2020

On the Subway Essay

â€Å"On the Subway† is a poem by Sharon Olds that unfolds â€Å"to convey a sense of fear, ambiguity, inequality, and inner city tension. The situation is set by the title, and this makes all that follows clear as far as its meaning is concerned.†(para. 1). Ms. Olds tells the story through the narrator who while riding the train observes that she is alone with a young black boy. â€Å"While nothing really happens beyond the two observing each other, the poem still manages to shed light to inequality, prejudice, and stereotypes.†(para 1). The poem begins with the narrator telling the story of the two of them alone on the subway train through her observations and predisposed prejudices. There are many Symbolic references about class, race, and inequality made throughout the story. As the story begins the first symbolic reference unfolds as the narrator describes the boy’s feet and his shoes. As she goes on to further describe the boy’s shoe laces we get the sense of the imbalance of equality of the races. While the sneakers themselves are black it is the laces that are white and form a complex pattern which is referred to as intentional scars. The author uses the white laces to symbolize the imbalance of power that the young boy has had have more power to face as a minority. They also suggest that since the laces keep the shoes on or together that they. The laces could also be symbolic of the markings left on the boys’ ancestors back in the day when they were slaves and had received a beating thus bearing the scars of the beating. The woman also uses the boy’s clothing to further symbolize the stereotypes and the injustices between the races. She is fearful of the boy because of the type of clothing that he wears. She feels that because he is dressed in clothing that is considered to be more urban and open that he was dressed like someone who would be a mugger. The woman who was clothed in fur was covered. The woman is fearful of being attacked because she is more affluent and therefore more of a target. Both the boy and the woman are sizing each other and without really knowing one another they both have their own feelings about each other. The boy knows that since the woman is a white woman she is covered in fur and therefore she has more affluence and power. The woman is truly fearful of the boy because of her own preconceived thoughts about race. She cannot look passed what the boy looks like woman is uncertain of the boy. She looks at him with fear that he can attack her at any moment because of he r affluence. The author continues to discuss the separation of races by discussing how much easier it is to be a White person than it is to be an African American. The poem indicates that being white offers privileges that being African American does not. It is the color of her skin that has provided her with better opportunity and separated her from the boy on the train. This poem is relevant today as it exemplifies stereotypes and inequalities that are still present in our society. The woman on the train represents wealth and power. The boy represents missed opportunity and poverty. The woman on the train feared that she was going to be attacked by the boy on the train simply because of past experiences and making judgments on someone simply based on the color of his skin and how he was dressed. Chances are that had the boy on the train been white the woman on the train would not have the same fear or feel the same way. Even in our society today we have people who are still quick to make rash judgments while not having all the facts or making a decision based on past experience. I also think the poem does reference some compassion between the boy and the woman by the end of the poem as the woman mentions that both races can be misunderstood and that both of them can get hurt or be harmed by being judged. They each have struggles that they have to overcome.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Sexual Education Classes Should Be Taught - 1168 Words

What would you do if you or someone you knew found out they were pregnant or had a sexually transmitted disease because of unprotected sex? Would you only care once it’s too late? Wouldn’t you wish you could have prevented what you thought you were incapable of ever dealing with? Surprisingly to many, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases can be preventable with the proper education. Sexual Education classes should be mandatorily taught in public schools to benefit the adolescents who are more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, who are sexually active, and who lack positive decision making skills. â€Å"Educators feel apprehensive or unsure in tackling the topics of sex, sexuality, and sexual health. They feel very overawed about where to start or disorderly about what to teach and when to teach it.† (plannedparenthood.org) However, the sex education classes are not for the teachers or the parents; but instead for the children. Adults should not hide behind the bias that states sexual education classes are inappropriate because the objective of the class is to prevent not promote.. Young people should obtain applicable health information to cultivate useful techniques for preserving a flourished lifestyle. Mentors have a duty to not only assist students, but families as well by providing ethical and wide-ranging information in secure and open-minded surroundings so that teenagers can absorb the concept of sexuality in a fit and positive setting.Show MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Sexual Education On Public Schools1702 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Sexual education being enforced in public schools is important and it should be taught in all schools. Young adults are learning that it is important to wait until marriage to have sex. Sexual education taught in public schools does raise a couple of eyebrows because some parents think that young adults should not learn about sex at their age. Sexual education is very important for young adults to either use abstinence or condoms. Sexual education in schools are the proper classes for youngRead MoreSexual Education And Sex Education1358 Words   |  6 Pagesadults know the results of their choices? Sexual education teaches all of the following, and kids in the curriculum are more likely to defend themselves in a plot when they were approached by a stranger (â€Å"Teaching children in schools†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). Sexual education teaches students about sexual health, abstinence, and information such as contraception, condoms, unplanned pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases (â₠¬Å"Sex Education Programs†). Comprehensive sexual education provides students with tools they useRead MoreThe Impact Of Media On Teens And Children1477 Words   |  6 Pagessongs playing on the radio stations, portraying sexual intercourse as acceptable behavior. They are found all over the media today. Not only is this type of media affecting the minds of teenagers, but also the young minds of our nation’s children. Media is spewing misleading information to the minds of our teens and children; abstinence is no longer being pursued. Sexual intercourse is more common now than it was decades ago. Our teens need to be taught the truth of these misconceptions and myths, becauseRead MoreShould All Schools Adopt More Sex Education?1748 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough These classes show a lot of improvement in having great results because they can teach the students about teen pregnancy and reduce these statistics However these classes have a lot of potential because they can teach the students things like reducing teen pregnancy ,Reduced disease like HIV/AIDS, Understanding that it’s a struggle having a kid while still being in school,and lastly debunking myths sexual references . Should all schools adopt more sex education classes in schools ? SchoolsRead MoreShould Sex Education Be Taught?862 Words   |  4 PagesSex Education in the classroom. Almost all student in the USA receive some type of sex education between the grades 7th and 12th. Sometime even as early as 4th grade. Many states now have laws that do not allow the parents to opt out of the class, regardless of how they feel about their child being taught, these things (Contemporary Education Issues | K12 Academics, 2015). While some states leave it up to the individual district to set the rules for sex education in the district. Sexual EducationRead MoreThe Effects Of Sexual Education On Public Schools908 Words   |  4 PagesHow Sexual Education In Public Schools Benefit By: Michelle Schlichting English Composition I November 2015 Sexual education in public schools has many benefits. This is of course if every public school would be willing to provide their students with the opportunity to be able to take this class. Therefore I believe that some sort of sexual education class should be provided to all high school students in public schools. Sexual Education should be taught in high schools for quite a numberRead MoreSexual Education Starts At Home Essay856 Words   |  4 PagesSexual education is a constant development that starts from birth and continues across the developmental life span. During this process, it is crucial to lay a strong foundation for sexual health. There are many factual and non-factual opinions about the topic of sexual education. It is constantly it is being discussed and highly publicized in our society via Mass Media and some of the most influential people in our lives. Sexual education is more than sex; it’s about sexual development, reproductionRead MoreHigh Teen Pregnancy Rate: Comprehensive Sex Education at Fault?1377 Words   |  6 Pagesthe lack of sexual education within her school. She claims that because she did not received adequate information on this subject, she was unaware of what she was getting herself into. The question is: will the opportunity to experience sex educat ion classes make a difference in preventing teen pregnancy? Sexual education, in a broad sense, is a series of courses taken by adolescents throughout their school years in order gain a better understanding of aspects that pertain to sexual activity. BeginningRead MoreThe System Of Sex Education Essay1034 Words   |  5 PagesSystem of Sex Education Abstinence education should be a part of sex education in schools because it is the best way to avoid the risks of unsafe sex. Children are only taught how to have sex, and they believe the pullout method is effective. Some children are not ready for sex, but they do it anyway because they are not told to wait. Abstinence should be taught as part of sex education because sexual transmitted disease, teen pregnancy, and abortion rates would decrease. Sex education in schoolsRead MoreShould Sex Education Be Taught?1124 Words   |  5 Pagesadolescents have healthy sexual attitudes and engage in sexual behaviors that will not compromise their journey to adulthood (Adolescence pg. 193). Are the â€Å"suttle† and â€Å"private† talks about sex harming adolescents versus helping them? Is the sex education that is being taught being embedded in adolescent’s heads? Many people have a different opinion on wither sex education should be taught in school and how it should be taught. When looking at the statistics, sex education can play an important role